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Saturday, 19 January 2019

REDUCTION OF AIR AND NOISE POLLUTION BY AQUA SILENCER.


Now a days Air pollution is major problem.
Diesel engines are playing a vital role in Road and sea transport, Agriculture, mining and many other industries.
The main pollutants contribute by automobiles are (CO), (Nox) , (Sox) and Lead etc.,
An aqua silencer is an attempt in this direction, it is mainly dealing with control of emission and noise.
 Several researches are going on to reduce the toxic content of diesel exhaust, the diesel power packs.



An aqua silencer is used to control the noise and emission in ic engines.
The reason why we go for aqua silencer is, in today life the air pollution causes physical ill effects to the human beings and also the environment.
The main contribution of the air pollution is i.c. engine releasing the gases like carbon dioxide, unburned hydrocarbons etc.
In order to avoid this type of gases by introducing this aqua silencer.

PARTS OF AQUA SILENCER

        •Perforated Tube
Non-return valve
Outer shell
Flange
Charcoal layer

WORKING PRINCIPLE



As the exhaust gases enter into the Aqua   silencer, the perforated tube converts high mass bubbles in to low mass bubbles after that they passes through charcoal layer which again purify the gases.
It is highly porous and posses extra free valences so it has high absorption capacity.
After passing over the charcoal layer some of the gases may dissolved in to the water and finally the exhaust gases escape through the opening in to the atmosphere.
Hence aqua silencer reduces noise and pollution.

PARTS IN 3D VIEW




Effects on dissolved gases on water


The water is a good absorbing medium.
In aqua silencer the gases are made to be dissolved in water.
When these gases dissolved in water they form acids, carbonates, bicarbonates etc.,
Action of dissolved Sox
Action of dissolved Co2

Effect of dissolved Nox

Ca(OH)2+SO2…….CaSO3+H2O
2HCL+Ca(OH)2……CaCl2+2H2O
H2SO4+Ca(OH)2………CaSO4+2H2O
CO2+Ca(OH)2…….CaCO3+2H2O
NHCO3+Ca(OH)2……CaCO3+H2O+Na2CO3


Action of dissolved Sox
When Sox is mixed in water, it form So2, So3, So4, H2So4, i.e. sulfur Acid (H2So3,), it forms Hydrogen Sulphide which causes egg smell, acidify and corrosion of metals.
Action of dissolved Co2
The dissolved carbon dioxide forms bicarbonate at lower PH and Carbonates at higher PH. This levels 40-400 mg/liter.
Action of dissolved Nox
The Nitrogen in water under goes Oxidation to form ammonia, Nitrate, Nitrite, Nitric acid.
A limit of 10 mg per liters Nitrate is affordable. 

COMPARISON OF AQUASILENCER AND SIMPLE SILENCER


 Case 1: Using simple silencer
 Case 2: Using silencer with activated     charcoal
 Case 3: Using silencer with activated charcoal and lime

                                   Comparison of Smoke Density Levels

Methods To Control The Water Pollution 

Lime water wash method. 
Absorption process.

Lime Water wash method


The water is treated with the calculated quantities of slaked lime. After mixing the heavy precipitates settle down as sludge at the bottom of the tank are removed from time to time.
Lime can neutralize any acid present in the water. SO2 , gases are removed from the flue gases forming calcium sulphate.



Absorption Process


Activated charcoal is available in granular or powdered form.As it is highly porous and possess free valencies.So it posses  high absorption capacity.Activated carbon is more widely used for the removal of taste and odorous from the public wate rsupplies.Because it has excellent properties of attracting gases,finely divided solid particles and phenol type impurities,The activated carbon, usually in the powdered form is added to the water either before or after the coagulation with sedimentation.


MERITS:


Easily engine gets start.Emission and Noise is controlled at greater level.


DEMERITS:


Once in year there is requirement of filling of lime water.
More requirement of space.The weight of silencer get increases.


APPLICATIONS:


The pollution free atmosphere is efficiently created. No compensation on the speed is required.
This can also be used in industries to avoid water, air and noise pollution. It avoids unwanted vibration which are produced during idle state of the vehicle.




The silencer is more effective in the reduction of emission gases from the engine. Exhaust using perforated tube and charcoal. By using water as a medium the sound can be lowered and also by using activated charcoal in water we can control the exhaust emission to a greater level.
The water contamination is found to be negligible in aqua silencer.It is smokeless and pollution free emission and also it is very cheap.
This aqua silencer’s performance is almost equivalent to the conventional silencer. It can be also used both for two wheelers and four wheelers and also can be used in industries.It can be widely used in industrial engines and with a little improvisation, in heavy weight vehicles.





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